Authenticating Digital Evidence Under FRE 902(13) and (14): Using Digital Signatures (Hash Values) and Metadata to Create Self-Authenticating Digital Evidence

The traditional rules around the authentication and submission of evidence has struggled to keep up with the evolution of technology. Thankfully, FRE 902(13) and (14) provide new avenues for the submission of digital evidence—but understanding all the nuances and requirements of authentication can be tricky. This guide explains how legal teams can create self-authenticating evidence under FRE 902(13) and (14).


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